Earth Science-An Introduction

As we all Know, in our solar system, Earth is the only planet which support life. All Living organism including Humans are depends on earth’s resources. All living Organism get their food, Fresh Air for breathe , Water for drink, Economic Minerals and all other essential things from it. These all are part of Earth Science.

What is Earth Science..?

Earth science is a Interdisciplinary branch of Science which deals with Earth and its surrounding space. It includes -

Scientific Study of Universe-Astronomy

Scientific Study of Atmosphere- Meteorology

Scientific Study of ocean-Oceanography

Scientific Study of Lithosphere- Geology (Rock/ Mineral science )

Earth science also include study of impact of human activity on earth’s Environment or Resources.

Earth process such as volcanic activity, Plate tectonic, Sea floor spreading etc also comes under earth Science.

So, now let us discus these branches of earth science one by one.


Astronomy is a branch of Earth science which deals with study of Celestial bodies such as stars, planets, comets and galaxies .it also include study all phenomenon which originate beyond the earth’s atmosphere.


Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere and its phenomena. It includes study of all forces and process such as changes of air pressure, temperature and humidity, which are responsible for change into climate or weather condition for particular area.

Meteorologist try to forecast weather condition.


Geology is the the primary branch of earth science.It include the study of the origin, structure and history of development of the earth and its component such as rocky lithosphere, liquid hydrosphere ,gaseous atmosphere and living biosphere.

Geologist work include mineral prospecting, structural mapping, Geo hazard mapping and identifying rocks and its petrology or petrography, study of glacial movements, interpret clues to Earth’s 4.6-billion-year history etc.


Oceanography is a branch of earth Science which deals with study of composition, movement, organism and processes occurring in Ocean.

Oceanographer works include to measure physical and chemical properties of ocean water, study of living organism present in ocean and different process occurring in ocean.

Why we should study earth science…?

Importance of Earth Science-

At present, humans are facing new challenges such as Climate change, Global warming , Ozone depletion and other environmental issues. All these issues are part of our earth system, Hence,We cannot overcome from these problem without having a good and deep knowledge and understanding of Earth science. Earth Scientist try to identify possible reason for these problem and give suggestion to solve it.

Moreover,due to rapid growth of human population we need extra resources to fulfil our needs.this increase our dependency on natural resources.Hence we have to search new resources for energy production,food production which is a part of earth science..

Earth scientist help us to locate new mineral resources .

Geo hazard such as earthquake, flood, volcanic activity also challenges human survival. Earth Scientist try to understand these process and predict Prone area and their frequency of occurrence, which help us to minimise the loss.


  • (Research Scholar at University of Lucknow)

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